在IEEE 802.11e,有两种类型的QoS:

  1. prioritized QoS a weak requirement
  2. parameterized QoS a strict requirement

new field in 802.11 header

TID (traffic ID)

select a UP (user priority) for prioritized QoS or a TSPEC (traffic specification) for parameterized

0 – 7 are considered user priorities

8 – 16 refer to TSPECs.


A TSPEC between an AP and an STA is negotiated by means of new management commands – ADDTS Request, ADDTS Response and DELTS.

After a TSPEC is successfully negotiated, an STA can get a TXOP by one of two ways:

  1. Using EDCA, an STA can contend for the medium, and if it acquires the medium can use the medium for TXOP time limit. The STA must observe the TXOP time limit as specified in an IE in beacons.
  2. During CP/CFP, an AP can grant an STA a TXOP using the QoS CF-Poll (called as “polled TXOP” in contrast to “EDCA TXOP”). The TXOP limit is specified in the CF-Poll frame. While the spec allows an AP to grant a “polled TXOP” to an STA during either CFP or CP, it is recommended that it not be issued during CFP, but only during CP for reasons of simplicity in implementation.

WiFi Multimedia (WMM)

supports only EDCA but not HCCA. Without HCCA, parametererized QoS can not be supported.

Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)

Basic Elements for QoS

  • Traffic Differentiation
  • Concept of Transmission Opportunity (TXOP)
    1. 一個傳送機會(TXOP)是一個有限的時間區域。在這時間區域內,一工作 站(station)可儘可能地傳送訊框(frames)。
    2. 若訊框(frame)太大而超過傳送機會(TXOP)的時間區域則必須切割分段 (fragment)成較小的訊框(frames)來傳送。
    3. 若傳送機會(TXOP)的時間區域為0時只能傳送一個資料封包。

New Contention Channel Access

  • Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)
    1. EDCA提供在802.11中競爭基礎(Contention-Based)頻道存取機制, 排定優先順序(priority)的品質服務(QoS)。此優先順序是以區分訊務 流量類別而實現。802.1D的8個訊務流量類別(Traffic Classes, TC)對 應至4個(語音、視訊、盡力傳送、背景)802.11e的存取類別(Access Categories, AC)。訊務流量類別被指派至不同的資料佇列(Queue),每 個佇列根據下列基礎指定優先順序及使用時間存取媒介:
      • 仲裁內框間隔(Arbitration Inter Frame Spacing, AIFS)
      • 競爭窗框(Contention Window, CWmin/CWmax)
      • 傳輸機會(Transmission Opportunity, TXOP)
    2. AIFS時間短的能提早獲得媒介。傳輸機會(TXOP)為指派給節點傳 輸無線訊框的時間長度。優先順序更高的流量,其等待的AIFS時 槽越小,而且退後等待(Backoff)時間也更短。TXOP的長度對應在 特定優先權所預期的串流類型。
    3. 許可(進入)控制(Admission Control)透過傳輸規格保護優先次序高 的訊務流量類別不會受其他優先次序較低的流量影響。

New Contention Free Channel Access

  • HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA) HCCA是HCF的一構成要素(component) 同時提供服務 品質(QoS)參數化(parameterized)的支持。

    它除傳承傳統(legacy) PCF的規則外,同時引進一些新 規則。

    HCCA不同於PCF的運作,而對無線媒介(Wireless Medium )提供polled access,這可用在無競爭時期(CFP) 與競爭時期(CP)。

Automatic Power-Save Delivery (APSD)

New mechanisms for higher throughput

  • Block Acknowledgement (Block Ack)
  • Direct Link Setup (DLS)

Same Contention Based that EDC but…

  • 8 priority levels per station (identical to IEEE 802.1D priority tags) mapped to 4 access categories (AC)
  • Different Arbitration InterFrame Space (AIFS) per access categories
  • TxOP Burst Limits

EDCA Frame Priorities


EDCA Implementation Model


Arbitration InterFrame Space


Throughput Enhancements

improve channel utilization and efficiency.

Block ACK

Improves channel efficiency by aggregating several acknowledgments into one frame.

  • 2 types of Block Ack mechanisms:

    immediate and delayed


Direct Link Protocol

Ability to exchange data directly between two stations in the network, without traversing the AP.


Automatic Power-Save Delivery

Enhancing Power Saving mode in QoS Basic Service Set

QoS-AP automatically delivers downlink frames,which belong to some specified Access Category, to Power-Saving stations

Two types of delivery mechanism

  1. Unscheduled APSD (U-APSD)
  2. Scheduled APSD (S-APSD)
  • Unscheduled APSD (U-APSD)


    Power-saving QoS-STA wakes up and send a “trigger”data frame belonging to “trigger-enabled” AC to QoS-AP

    After receiving “trigger” frame, a Service Period (SP) is started

    QoS-AP send frames belonging to “delivery-enabled” AC to QoS-STA

  • Scheduled APSD (S-APSD)


    QoS-STA negotiates a APSD Schedule with QoS-AP

    QoS-AP start transmitting the frames of the specified Traffic Stream at Service Start Time and the following periods

    QoS STA must wake up at Service Start Time and the following periods to receive frames